Identify the purpose and structures of a causal analysis essay 2. Apply various linguistic structures Draft an outline for their essay 1, 2 1.
A single note C played on a Hammond organ Problems playing this file? Unlike an American Guild of Organists pedalboard, a console Hammond normally has 25 pedals. As with pipe organ keyboards, the two manuals are arrayed on two levels close to each other. Each is laid out in a similar manner to a piano keyboard, except that pressing a key on a Hammond results in the sound continuously playing until it is released, whereas with a piano, the note's volume decays.
No difference in volume occurs regardless of how heavily or lightly the key is pressed unlike with a pianoso overall volume is controlled Eng 102 module 3 a pedal also known as a "swell" or "expression" pedal. In contrast to piano and pipe organ keys, Hammond keys have a flat-front profile, commonly referred to as "waterfall" style.
Early Hammond console models had sharp edges, but starting with the B-2, these were rounded, as they were cheaper to manufacture. Most console Hammond pedalboards have 25 notes, with the bottom note a low C and the top note a middle C two octaves higher.
Hammond used a note pedalboard because he found that on traditional note pedalboards used in church pipe organs, the top seven notes were seldom used. A drawbar is a metal slider that controls the volume of a particular sound component, in a similar way to a fader on an audio mixing board.
As a drawbar is incrementally pulled out, it increases the volume of its sound. When pushed all the way in, the volume is decreased to zero. Most Hammonds contain nine drawbars per manual. The other drawbars generate various other harmonics and subharmonics of the note. A very popular setting is i.
Console organs have one octave of reverse colored keys naturals are black, sharps and flats are white to the left of each manual, with each key activating a preset; the far left key Calso known as the cancel key, de-activates all presets, and results in no sound coming from that manual. The selected percussion harmonic fades out, leaving the sustained tones the player selected with the drawbars.
The volume of this percussive effect is selectable as either normal or soft. Before a Hammond organ can produce sound, the motor that drives the tonewheels must come up to speed. On most models, starting a Hammond organ involves two switches. The "Start" switch turns a dedicated starter motorwhich must run for about 12 seconds.
Then, the "Run" switch is turned on for about four seconds. The "Start" switch is then released, whereupon the organ is ready to generate sound.
This briefly cuts power to the generators, causing them to run at a slower pace and generate a lower pitch for a short time. Hammond's New B3 contains similar switches to emulate this effect, though it is a digital instrument. The telharmonium used revolving electric alternators which generated tones that could be transmitted over wires.
The instrument was bulky, because the alternators had to be large enough to generate high voltage for a loud enough signal.
The Hammond organ solved this problem by using an amplifier. By the start of the s, he had designed a spring-driven clock, which provided enough sales for him to start his own business, the Hammond Clock Companyin As well as clocks, his early inventions included three-dimensional glasses and an automatic bridge table shuffler.
Hammond was inspired to create the tonewheel or "phonic wheel" by listening to the moving gears of his electric clocks and the tones produced by them. Since Hammond was not a musician, he asked the company's assistant treasurer, W. Lahey, to help him achieve the desired organ sound. While attorneys for Hammond argued that the test listeners were wrong or guessed nearly half the time, witnesses for the FTC claimed that Hammond employees had unfairly manipulated the Skinner organ to sound more like the Hammond.
After the FTC's decision, Hammond claimed that the hearings had vindicated his company's assertions that the organ produced "real", "fine", and "beautiful" music, phrases which were each cited in the FTC's original complaint, but not included in the "cease and desist" order.
Hammond also claimed that although the hearing was expensive for his company, the proceedings generated so much publicity that "as a result we sold enough extra organs to cover the expense.
Several dedicated organ dealers set up business in the United States  and there was a bi-monthly newsletter, The Hammond Times, mailed out to subscribers. Console organs have two note manuals and a pedalboard of at least two octaves.Study Flashcards On ENGLISH TEST at metin2sell.com Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more.
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