The relationship between culture and language Diposting oleh Kelompok 18 di
Stacy Phipps The relationship between language, thought and reality has occupied philosophers, linguists, anthropologists and psychologists for centuries. Along with the standard western thought Plato ultimately describes language as being based on reality.
Similarly John Locke of a more recent time describes the relationship between reality and language: Our senses, conversant about particular sensible object, do convey into the mind several distinct perceptions of things according to those various ways wherein those objects affect them.
And thus we come by those ideas we have of yellow, white, heat, cold, soft, hard, bitter, sweet and all those which we call sensible qualities; which when I say the senses convey into the mind, I mean, they from external objects convey into the mind what produces those perceptions Essay Concerning Human Understanding, book 2, chapter 1.
Locke exemplifies in this statement what many philosophers and psychologists felt about how we think and how we perceive reality and how that is then reflected in our language. Contrary to these common beliefs among philosophers concerning language, a well-known German scholar and diplomat from the 18th century, Wilhelm von Humboldt equated language and thought as inseparable, as language completely determining thought, in a hypothesis known as the Weltanschauung world view hypothesis Brown, What caught the attention of many scholars and non-scholars alike and has stimulated comparative research among many different languages was a paragraph that Sapir read to a group of anthropologists and linguists in No two languages are ever sufficiently similar to be considered as representing the same social reality.
The worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same world with different labels attached Salzmann, This statement and similar ones by Whorf, attempting to illustrate that language is the medium by which one views the world, culture, reality and thought have aroused an intense desire in not only scholars but also for non-scholars to validate of disprove this hypothesis.
Most researchers today currently argue one of the following three positions in relation to the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis or Linguistic Relativity: Benjamin Whorf, like Sapir studied Native American languages. Whorf sites several examples form the Native American language, Hopi, to support his hypothesis that thought is strongly based on language.
Although these constraints continue to make it difficult for researchers, many continue to look for ways to prove or disprove the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. A common argument for the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis is the perception of color across languages. According to the hypothesis, if one language categorizes color differently than another language, then the different groups should perceive it differently also.
The Berinmo were given a sample of different colors and asked to categorize them. The Berinmo not only had less categories, they did not differentiate between the English colors blue and green, however, they did draw a category between colors in their language nol and wor which in English would both be perceived in the category of yellow.
The researchers found that the Berinmo speakers were better at matching colors across their nol, wor categories than across the English blue and green categories and English speakers were better at matching colors across blue and green than across the Berinmo nol and wor Sawyer, According to the researchers by showing that the color perception of the two language groups is dependent on the categorization in the language the results support the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.
There are three main points that researchers use to dispute the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Translatability is a common argument scholars use against the hypothesis, for although language may differ considerably in the way they express certain details, it is still quite possible to translate those details from one language to another Fishman, He argues that there is no way to define language as influencing thought when there is no distinction between these two events and that the evidence which supports language as influencing thought is based purely on linguistic differences.
The third argument that gives evidence against language influencing thought is the concept of universals. The idea of universals can be traced back to the Port Royale: There are in the grammar observations that apply to all languages; these observations constitute what one calls general grammar.
Grammar, which has for its object the expression of thought by the help of speed, spoken or written, thus admits of two sorts of rules. One kind are immutably true and universally followed, they apply to the form of thought itself, they follow from the analysis of it and are only the consequence of it… Cowie, The relationships between language, thought and culture have been one of the myths of language for centuries.
This paper will assess the power of language and the mutual influence between language and culture by observing cognition of different language speakers. The aim of this essay is to find out. Autonomy is "seen as a self-authoring experience constructed in the struggle for one's needs and goals, a self-feeling emotion which changes with one's stream of motives and actions".
In short, one can obtain important results for language development exploring the relationship between thought and language.
LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT: EXAMINING LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY. Stacy Phipps. December 13, ABSTRACT. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis has changed the way many people look at the relationship between language, thought and cultural perception of reality.
essays. Lecture delivered in Melbourne in I have chosen to talk today about the relationship between language and thought, but I must warn you at the outset that I am neither a linguist nor a philosopher, so what follows is perforce impressionistic – my personal take, if you like, on the matter, arising from my experiences as a practitioner of science and also of creative writing.
Published: Thu, 23 Feb In the field of linguistic theory, the relation between thought and language is still an emerging topic of discussion. Different linguists and psychologists stand on different views and continued their argument to define this relation whether they are interdependent or independent.
We discuss arguments showing that language cannot be taken to be the vehicle of thought. We then review evidence from several domains in which language has been proposed to reorganize conceptual representations, including color, objects and substances, space, motion, number, and spatial orientation.