Taxonomy of biological human cytomegalovirus hcmv essay

Stuffing box Save A stuffing box is an assembly which is used to house a gland seal. Components A stuffing box of a sailboat will have a stern tube that's slightly bigger than the prop shaft. It will also have packing nut threads or a gland nut.

Taxonomy of biological human cytomegalovirus hcmv essay

Development of a vaccine against congenital infection with human cytomegalovirus HCMV is a major public health priority. A potential vaccine target receiving considerable recent attention is the pentameric complex PC of HCMV proteins consisting of gL, gH, UL, UL, and UL, since some antibodies against these target proteins are capable of potently neutralizing virus at epithelial and endothelial cell surfaces.

To investigate these proteins as potential vaccine targets, expression of GPGP transcripts was confirmed by reverse-transcriptase PCR. Mass spectrometry combined with western blot assays demonstrated the presence of GP, GP, and GP proteins in virus particles.

Recombinant proteins corresponding to these PC proteins were generated in baculovirus, and as GST fusion proteins. Recombinant proteins were noted to be immunoreactive with convalescent sera from infected animals, suggesting that these proteins are recognized in the humoral immune response to GPCMV infection.

Introduction Development of a vaccine against human cytomegalovirus HCMV is a major public health priority [ 1 ]. HCMV infection elicits both cellular and humoral immune responses.

The suggestion that passively transferred anti-HCMV antibody during pregnancy protects the fetus against infection and HCMV-induced injury [ 2 ] has driven efforts to develop recombinant vaccines targeting major envelope glycoproteins. Development of an optimal glycoprotein vaccine is complicated by the complexity of virus entry and the variety of mechanisms employed.

Taxonomy of biological human cytomegalovirus hcmv essay

HCMV uses two different entry mechanisms to infect various cell types fibroblasts, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. Therefore, although clinical trials of recombinant gB vaccines which have shown some degree of effectiveness in preventing CMV infection and disease in high risk populations are ongoing [ 910 ], there is also considerable interest in developing vaccines targeting the HCMV pentameric complex PC.

Ideally, a HCMV vaccine strategy would be tested in an animal model prior to clinical trials. However, a number of rodent and primate CMVs are useful in modeling HCMV vaccines and therapies, given the conservation of many immunogenic structural proteins amongst the various viruses [ 111213 ].

In addition, following subcutaneous RhCMV challenge at eight weeks post-vaccination, vaccinated animals demonstrated reduced plasma viral loads. Although the RhCMV model is a valuable system that recapitulates many of the pathologies of HCMV congenital infection, the expense of rhesus macaques and the difficulty in establishing RhCMV seronegative animal colonies makes it difficult to conduct large-scale studies comparing vaccines against congenital infection.

Among the small animal models, the guinea pig CMV GPCMV is uniquely useful, since, in contrast to rodent models, transplacental infection of the fetus occurs following viral challenge during pregnancy [ 1215 ]. These studies were undertaken to characterize these genes and express the encoded proteins in recombinant systems, toward the goal of examining antibody responses of naturally and experimentally infected guinea pigs to these proteins.Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a beta-herpesvirus that causes lifelong infection in humans.

HCMV has a prevalence of % within the human population, depending on different socioeconomic and geographical factors. Hancock et al. found that human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) also uses its own miRNAs, miR-US and miR-ULp, which bind to IkB kinase (IKK) complex components IKKα and IKKβ, in order to avoid the immune response of the host.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the herpesvirus family that generally remains unnoticed in the human body, but can be severely pathogenic in immunocompromised patients. HCMV can be transmitted by direct contact with bodily fluids such as saliva, tears, urine, stool, semen and breast milk [2].

A gland is a general type of stuffing box, used to seal a rotating or reciprocating shaft against a fluid. The most common example is in the head of a tap (faucet) where the gland is usually packed with string which has been soaked in tallow or similar grease.

The gland nut allows the packing. Increasing evidence implies that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with several malignancies.

human papillomavirus (HPV) and most recently HCMV. HCMV and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) HCMV was believed to encode about proteins that exhibit multiple biological activities that interfere with physiological .

Essay on Taxonomy of Biological Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) - Taxonomy of biological organisms begins with the single identification whether they are living or not. Viruses are usually considered as non-living ones, as they can grow and replicate only inside cells.

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