Perhaps the most influential integrative theory of personality is that of psychoanalysis, which was largely promulgated during the first four decades of the 20th century by the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. Although Freud had two older half-brothers, his strongest if also most ambivalent attachment seems to have been to a nephew, John, one year his senior, who provided the model of intimate friend and hated rival that Freud reproduced often at later stages of his life. In the Freud family was compelled for economic reasons to move to Leipzig and then a year after to Viennawhere Freud remained until the Nazi annexation of Austria 78 years later.
Sartre's Life Sartre was born in in Paris. This was his passport to a teaching career. His phenomenological investigation into the imagination was published in and his Theory of Emotions two years later.
During the Second World War, Sartre wrote his existentialist magnum opus Being and Nothingness and taught the work of Heidegger in a war camp. Being and Nothingness was published in and Existentialism and Humanism in His study of Baudelaire was published in and that of the actor Jean Genet in Inafter three years working on it, Sartre published the Critique of Dialectical Reason.
He was a high profile figure in the Peace Movement. Inhe turned down the Nobel prize for literature.
He was actively involved in the May uprising. His study of Flaubert, L'Idiot de la Famille, was published in Inhe claimed no longer to be a Marxist, but his political activity continued until his death in Early Works Sartre's early What are the aims of freudian is characterised by phenomenological analyses involving his own interpretation of Husserl's method.
Sartre's methodology is Husserlian as demonstrated in his paper "Intentionality: This means that the acts by which consciousness assigns meaning to objects are what is analysed, and that what is sought in the particular examples under examination is their essential structure. At the core of this methodology is a conception of consciousness as intentional, that is, as 'about' something, a conception inherited from Brentano and Husserl.
Sartre puts his own mark on this view by presenting consciousness as being transparent, i. The distinctiveness of Sartre's development of Husserl's phenomenology can be characterised in terms of Sartre's methodology, of his view of the self and of his ultimate ethical interests.
Methodology Sartre's methodology differs from Husserl's in two essential ways.
Although he thinks of his analyses as eidetic, he has no real interest in Husserl's understanding of his method as uncovering the Essence of things.
For Husserl, eidetic analysis is a clarification which brings out the higher level of the essence that is hidden in 'fluid unclarity' Husserl, Ideas, I. For Sartre, the task of an eidetic analysis does not deliver something fixed immanent to the phenomenon. It still claims to uncover that which is essential, but thereby recognizes that phenomenal experience is essentially fluid.
In Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions, Sartre replaces the traditional picture of the passivity of our emotional nature with one of the subject's active participation in her emotional experiences. Emotion originates in a degradation of consciousness faced with a certain situation.
The spontaneous conscious grasp of the situation which characterizes an emotion, involves what Sartre describes as a 'magical' transformation of the situation.
Faced with an object which poses an insurmountable problem, the subject attempts to view it differently, as though it were magically transformed. Thus an imminent extreme danger may cause me to faint so that the object of my fear is no longer in my conscious grasp.
Or, in the case of wrath against an unmovable obstacle, I may hit it as though the world were such that this action could lead to its removal.
One ingenious early study used sex and electric shocks to find out. At the start of the experiment, two of three groups of heterosexual males were greeted by a middle-aged professor, while the. Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders. The discipline was established in the early s by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud and stemmed partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others.. Freud first used the term psychoanalysis (in French) in Become a Science-Based Practitioner! The Positive Psychology toolkit is a science-based, online platform containing + exercises, activities, interventions, questionnaires, assessments and scales.
The essence of an emotional state is thus not an immanent feature of the mental world, but rather a transformation of the subject's perspective upon the world.
In The Psychology of the Imagination, Sartre demonstrates his phenomenological method by using it to take on the traditional view that to imagine something is to have a picture of it in mind. Sartre's account of imagining does away with representations and potentially allows for a direct access to that which is imagined; when this object does not exist, there is still an intention albeit unsuccessful to become conscious of it through the imagination.3.
The reasoning behind an idea, strategy, or proposal with particular emphasis placed on the benefits brought on by that idea. Examples of concepts include the design for a new automobile or the pitch behind an advertising campaign.
Words and phrases popularised by Sigmund Freud are ingrained in everyday language - how did Freudian jargon become so widespread?
Sigmund Freud: Sigmund Freud, Austrian neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis. Freud’s article on psychoanalysis appeared in the 13th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Freud may justly be called the most influential intellectual legislator of his age. His . Karl Popper: Philosophy of Science. Karl Popper () was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century.
He made significant contributions to debates concerning general scientific methodology and theory choice, the demarcation of science from non-science, the nature of probability and quantum mechanics, and the methodology of the social sciences. Study of religion - Basic aims and methods: The growth of various disciplines in the 19th century, notably psychology and sociology, stimulated a more analytic approach to religions, while at the same time theology became more sophisticated and, in a sense, scientific as it began to be affected by and thus to make use of historical and other methods.
One ingenious early study used sex and electric shocks to find out. At the start of the experiment, two of three groups of heterosexual males were greeted by a middle-aged professor, while the.